Blood Tests

Types of Blood Tests

Types of Blood Tests

Some of the most common blood tests are:

  • A complete blood count (CBC)
  • Blood chemistry tests
  • Blood enzyme tests
  • Blood tests to assess heart disease risk
STDs that can be detected through urine or blood tests include:
  • chlamydia.
  • gonorrhea.
  • hepatitis.
  • herpes.
  • HIV.
  • syphilis.

Blood testing and genital herpes treatment


Complete Blood Count

The CBC is one of the most common blood tests. It’s often done as part of a routine checkup.

The CBC can help detect blood diseases and disorders, such as anemia, infections, clotting problems, blood cancers, and immune system disorders. This test measures many different parts of your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs.

Red Blood Cells

Red blood cells carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Abnormal red blood cell levels may be a sign of anemia, dehydration (too little fluid in the body), bleeding, or another disorder.

White Blood Cells

White blood cells are part of your immune system, which fights infections and diseases. Abnormal white blood cell levels may be a sign of infection, blood cancer, or an immune system disorder.

A CBC measures the overall number of white blood cells in your blood. A CBC with differential looks at the amounts of different types of white blood cells in your blood.

Platelets

Platelets (PLATE-lets) are blood cell fragments that help your blood clot. They stick together to seal cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding.

Abnormal platelet levels may be a sign of a bleeding disorder (not enough clotting) or a thrombotic disorder (too much clotting).

Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (HEE-muh-glow-bin) is an iron-rich protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. Abnormal hemoglobin levels may be a sign of anemia, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia (thal-a-SE-me-ah), or other blood disorders.

If you have diabetes, excess glucose in your blood can attach to hemoglobin and raise the level of hemoglobin A1c.

Hematocrit

Hematocrit (hee-MAT-oh-crit) is a measure of how much space red blood cells take up in your blood. A high hematocrit level might mean you’re dehydrated. A low hematocrit level might mean you have anemia. Abnormal hematocrit levels also may be a sign of a blood or bone marrow disorder.

Mean Corpuscular Volume

Mean corpuscular (kor-PUS-kyu-lar) volume (MCV) is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. Abnormal MCV levels may be a sign of anemia or thalassemia.

Blood Chemistry Tests/Basic Metabolic Panel

The basic metabolic panel (BMP) is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests usually are done on the fluid (plasma) part of blood. The tests can give doctors information about your muscles (including the heart), bones, and organs, such as the kidneys and liver.

The BMP includes blood glucose, calcium, and electrolyte tests, as well as blood tests that measure kidney function. Some of these tests require you to fast (not eat any food) before the test, and others don’t. Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the test(s) you’re having.

Blood Glucose

Glucose is a type of sugar that the body uses for energy. Abnormal glucose levels in your blood may be a sign of diabetes.

For some blood glucose tests, you have to fast before your blood is drawn. Other blood glucose tests are done after a meal or at any time with no preparation.

Calcium

Calcium is an important mineral in the body. Abnormal calcium levels in the blood may be a sign of kidney problems, bone disease, thyroid disease, cancer, malnutrition, or another disorder.

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are minerals that help maintain fluid levels and acid-base balance in the body. They include sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride.

Abnormal electrolyte levels may be a sign of dehydration, kidney disease, liver disease, heart failure, high blood pressure, or other disorders.

Kidneys

Blood tests for kidney function measure levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (kre-AT-ih-neen). Both of these are waste products that the kidneys filter out of the body. Abnormal BUN and creatinine levels may be signs of a kidney disease or disorder.

Blood Enzyme Tests

Enzymes are chemicals that help control chemical reactions in your body. There are many blood enzyme tests. This section focuses on blood enzyme tests used to check for heart attack. These include troponin and creatine (KRE-ah-teen) kinase (CK) tests.

Troponin

Troponin is a muscle protein that helps your muscles contract. When muscle or heart cells are injured, troponin leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise.

For example, blood levels of troponin rise when you have a heart attack. For this reason, doctors often order troponin tests when patients have chest pain or other heart attack signs and symptoms.

Creatine Kinase

A blood product called CK-MB is released when the heart muscle is damaged. High levels of CK-MB in the blood can mean that you’ve had a heart attack.

Blood Tests To Assess Heart Disease Risk

A lipoprotein panel is a blood test that can help show whether you’re at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). This test looks at substances in your blood that carry cholesterol.

A lipoprotein panel gives information about your:

  • Total cholesterol.
  • LDL (“bad”) cholesterol. This is the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockages in the arteries. (For more information about blockages in the arteries, go to the Diseases and Conditions Index Atherosclerosis article.)
  • HDL (“good”) cholesterol. This type of cholesterol helps decrease blockages in the arteries.
  • Triglycerides. Triglycerides are a type of fat in your blood.

A lipoprotein panel measures the levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be signs of increased risk for CHD.

Most people will need to fast for 9 to 12 hours before a lipoprotein panel.

Blood Clotting Tests

Blood clotting tests sometimes are called a coagulation (KO-ag-yu-LA-shun) panel. These tests check proteins in your blood that affect the blood clotting process. Abnormal test results might suggest that you’re at risk of bleeding or developing clots in your blood vessels.

Your doctor may recommend these tests if he or she thinks you have a disorder or disease related to blood clotting.

Blood clotting tests also are used to monitor people who are taking medicines to lower the risk of blood clots. Warfarin and heparin are two examples of such medicines.


This Article is sponsored by the Center for Herpes Genital Treatment


 

herpes-genital-treatment

STD Research Center

If you have sex — oral, anal or vaginal intercourse and genital touching — you can get an STD, also called a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Straight or gay, married or single, you’re vulnerable to STIs and STI symptoms. Thinking or hoping your partner doesn’t have an STI is no protection — you need to know for sure. And although condoms are highly effective for reducing transmission of some STDs, no method is foolproof. Check out our article on Genital Herpes Treatment

STI symptoms aren’t always obvious. If you think you have STI symptoms or have been exposed to an STI, see a doctor. Some STIs are easy to treat and cure; others require more-complicated treatment to manage them.

It’s essential to be evaluated, and — if diagnosed with an STI — get treated. It’s also essential to inform your partner or partners so that they can be evaluated and treated.

If untreated, STIs can increase your risk of acquiring another STI such as HIV. This happens because an STI can stimulate an immune response in the genital area or cause sores, either of which might raise the risk of HIV transmission. Some untreated STIs can also lead to infertility.

Most Common Types of STD’s

  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Genital Herpes
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Syphilis
  • Bacterial Vaginosis
  • Trichomoniasis

Signs and Symptoms

STDs may not produce any symptoms, especially in women. However, when symptoms do occur, they may include the following:

  • Itching
  • Discharge from the penis or vagina
  • Pus-containing blisters
  • Genital sores including ulcers, blisters, rashes, and warts
  • Abdominal pain
  • Rectal infection and inflammation of the rectum
  • Fever
  • Muscle pain
  • Painful urination
  • Painful sex
  • Bleeding between menstrual cycles
  • Repeated urinary tract infections
  • Swollen lymph glands in the groin

What Causes It?

STDs are caused by viruses, bacteria, and parasites spread most often (but not always) through sexual contact. Some STDs can be passed from a mother to her baby during delivery and through breast-feeding while infected. Others may be passed by sharing infected needles.

Common STDs include:

  • AIDS: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • Chlamydia infection: Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Genital herpes: herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Genital warts: human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Gonorrhea: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Syphilis: Treponema pallidum

Who is Most At Risk?

These conditions or characteristics put you at risk for developing STDs:

  • Sexually active adults ages 18 to 28. Teens are at highest risk for acquiring an STD for the first time.
  • Having a sexual partner with an STD. In many cases, the infected person may not have symptoms.
  • Having many sexual partners, or a partner who has many sexual partners
  • Having sex without a condom or other protection
  • Having one STD increases the chance of getting another
  • Living under stress from poverty, poor nutrition, or lack of health care
  • Having anal intercourse increases risk for HIV, gonorrhea, and syphilis
  • Having a weakened immune system
  • Using IV drugs and sharing needles
genital-herpes-treatment

Natural Remedies to Control Herpes Outbreaks

What is the Herpes Virus?

Herpes viruses are known to cause cold sores, genital herpes, herpes zoster (shingles), post-herpetic neuralgia and in many instances, canker sores (apthous ulcers). One type, known quite simply as herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1), commonly affects the mouth and throat.


Visit Our Research Center for more on Herpes Genital Treatment


 

Herpes simplex virus type two (HSV-2) usually affects the genital areas. The herpes virus that causes shingles is the same herpes virus that causes chicken pox in younger individuals. Once a person is infected through skin contact the herpes virus travels up the nerve until it reaches the nerve ganglion in the spinal cord. It remains there in a dormant state, but on occasion the virus starts replicating again and travels down the nerve to the skin where it produces skin eruptions on the areas of the skin innervated by the affected nerve.

The number of outbreaks can vary widely from one individual to the next, but the virus is thought to be a permanent fixture that resides within the nerve ganglion for a lifetime, even though it may remain dormant for long periods. In the case of canker sores, not all canker sore problems are due to herpes infections. However, some of the nutrition and lifestyle information that appears in this article are useful for all canker sore sufferers, regardless of the cause.

What Causes Outbreaks

  1. Fever, cold, flu, weakened immune system, stress: Herpes attacks often occur when a person is run down, sleep-deprived, experiencing excessive stress, all of which weaken the immune system, enabling the virus to replicate more easily.
  2. Ultra-violet light (sun and tanning beds) exposure: Ultra-violet light is a known trigger factor for herpes viruses. Encourage patients not to over expose themselves to UV- light.
  3. Trauma to the skin: Cold sores and canker sores are often triggered by trauma or abrasion to the lips or inside of the mouth, including the tongue.
  4. Foods containing high levels of the amino acid, arginine, especially peanuts, chocolate and almonds: The amino acid, arginine, is required for the herpes virus to replicate. As such, eating foods high in arginine are associated with more frequent herpes outbreaks. The same holds true for dietary supplements containing arginine. Supplements that contain arginine often include oral growth hormone secretagogues and supplements designed to correct erectile dysfunction or enhance sexual potency.

Dietary Considerations:

  1. Avoid foods rich in arginine
  2. Consume foods rich in the amino acid lysine
  3. Avoid alcohol – alcohol weakens the immune system and is a known trigger for herpes outbreaks
  4. Reduce intake of refined sugars and aspartame
  5. Vegan Diet
  6. Consume broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables daily – broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and bok choy contain an active ingredient known as the indole-3-carbinol, which has been shown to inhibit replication of herpes viruses. Individuals consuming these foods daily and supplementing with indole-3-carbinol have reported decreased frequency of herpes outbreaks

The Garlic Cure

Antibiotics only treat bacteria and are not effective against herpes, which is a virus.  Garlic, on the other hand is effective against viruses.  Garlic kills viruses upon direct contact, including those responsible for viral meningitis, viral pneumonia, as well as herpes infections.


Contact Us for More Information on Genital Herpes Treatment

calories-to-lose-weight

How to Lose weight

There are may ways to lose weight. Common ways though are counting calories to lose weight.

So What Exactly are Calories?

Anything that contains energy has calories in it, even coal. Most people only associate calories with food and drink, but anything that contains energy has calories. For instance, one ton of coal contains the equivalent of 7,004,684,512 calories. The terms large calorie and small calorie can be confusing, and to add further confusion, are often mistakenly used interchangeably. This article focuses on calories associated with foods, drinks and human energy expenditure (our burning up of energy).

According to Medilexicon’s medical dictionary, a Calorie is “a unit of heat content or energy. The amount of heat necessary to raise 1 g of water from 14.5-15.5°C (small calorie). Calorie is being replaced by joule, the SI unit equal to 0.239 calorie.” The calories included in food labels are, in fact, kilocalories – units of 1,000 small calories. Therefore, a 250-calorie chocolate bar is actually 250,000 calories.

Myths About Calories

There are many ridiculous myths in nutrition. The “calorie myth” is one of the most pervasive… and most damaging. It is the idea that calories are the most important part of the diet, that the sources of those calories don’t matter.

“A calorie is a calorie IS a calorie,” they say… that it doesn’t matter whether you eat a 100 calories of candy or broccoli, they will have the same effect on your weight.
It is true that all “calories” have the same amount of energy. One dietary Calorie contains 4184 Joules of energy. In that respect, a calorie IS a calorie. But when it comes to your body, things are not that simple. The human body is a highly complex biochemical system with elaborate processes that regulate energy balance.

Different foods go through different biochemical pathways, some of which are inefficient and cause energy (calories) to be lost as heat (1). Even more important is the fact that different foods and macronutrients have a major effect on the hormones and brain centers that control hunger and eating behavior. The foods we eat can have a huge impact on the biological processes that govern when, what and how much we eat.

Zero Calorie Foods to Help You Slim Down

 The theory behind zero calorie or negative calorie foods is that they contain such a scant amount of calories that the energy you expend eating them cancels out their calories. In essence the bottom line is that you don’t take on any excess calories, and in some instances you end up burning calories as you eat them. Whether or not this is an accurate statement, it’s clear that the following foods have such a slight caloric load they won’t put a dent in your daily total.
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Top 20 Zero Calorie Power Foods

1. Celery – Total calories per 100g serving: 16
2. Oranges – Total calories per 100g serving: 47
3. Cabbage – Total calories per 100g serving: 25
4. Asparagus –  Total calories per 100g serving: 20
5. Beets – Total calories per 100g serving: 43
6. Cucumber – Total calories per 100g serving: 16
7. Lemons – Total calories per 100g serving: 29
8. Cauliflower – Total calories per 100g serving: 25
9. Mushrooms – Total calories per 100g serving of Chanterelle mushrooms: 38
10. Watermelon – Total calories per 100g serving: 30
11. Zucchini – Total calories per 100g serving: 17
12. Tomatoes – Total calories per 100g serving: 17
13. Grapefruit – Total calories per 100g serving: 42
14. Brussels Sprouts  – Total calories per 100g serving: 43
15. Kale – Total calories per 100g serving: 49
16. Turnips – Total calories per 100g serving: 28
17. Apples – Total calories per 100g serving: 52
18. Onions – Total calories per 100g serving: 40
19. Carrots –  Total calories per 100g serving: 41
20. Broccoli – Total calories per 100g serving: 34

For more information on counting calories to lose weight – please visit us o the web today https://bellyproof.com/members/calories-lose-weight/

Medical School Decentrale Selectie Training

Medical School


Decentrale Selectie TrainingThe great thing about living in the Netherlands or as a Dutch native wanting to study medicine is that there are institutes that offer what is called decentralized selection or decentrale selectie training.

The decentralized selection (also: decentralized admission or selection by institutions ) is an arrangement that allows prospective students to file an admission for some courses of higher education in the Netherlands .

The training institutions ( colleges and universities ) may offer a fixed quota for students enrolling and the remaining places will be allocated by a central selection or weighted lottery based on grades.


The route to qualification as a doctor in general practice in the Netherlands consists of three main phases:

  • BSc in medicine (3 years)
  • MSc in medicine (an additional 3 years)
  • Training (one year)

The first three years can be taught in English at Dutch universities, but only two have this option and very few of the places are available to British students. The University of Groningen offers two BSc degrees in medicine, one in global health, the other in molecular medicine. Maastricht University has a similar programme in English. All of these degrees would constitute the first step to becoming a doctor. While these degrees are taught in English it is imperative that you learn Dutch alongside your other studies; Dutch language is an integral part of the degree and you must pass exams in the language if you are to graduate.

The Dutch language is not just important for when you are dealing with patients. It is necessary because you cannot complete the MSc phase of your studies in English anywhere. There are Masters degrees in medical research and technology that are taught in English but these are not designed for you to qualify as a doctor. An example of such a degree would be the MSc in Medical Biology at Radboud University.

The final training year requires future doctors to work in Dutch hospitals and here, communication in the Dutch language will be of vital importance.

In summary, studying medicine in the Netherlands is possible but can only be done partly in English. You would need to commit to not just learning Dutch but studying in Dutch. The entry requirements are high as the universities are not struggling to recruit. Deadlines are earlier than for other subjects (typically 15th January) and, because of the high number of applicants already in receipt of their high school diploma, A’ level students can be disadvantaged if applying with predicted grades.

 


For more information on the process and for universities offering the decentrale selectie training program visit us on the web at http://decentraletraining.nl/.

 

Pregnancy & Childbirth

Pregnancy is measured in trimesters from the first day of your last menstrual period, totaling 40 weeks. The first trimester of pregnancy is week 1 through week 12, or about 3 months. The second trimester is week 13 to week 27. And the third trimester of pregnancy spans from week 28 to the birth.


For More info on Pregnancy and Childbirth – visit us here http://www.solomonmoshev.com/


Your baby will change from week to week. To learn more about how your baby is changing each month and about what tests you might think about having, see the Interactive Tool: From Embryo to Baby in 9 Months .

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First Trimester

During the week after fertilization, the fertilized egg grows into a microscopic ball of cells (blastocyst), which implants on the wall of your uterus. This implantation triggers a series of hormonal and physical changes in your body.

The third through eighth weeks of growth are called the embryonic stage, during which the embryo develops most major body organs. During this process, the embryo is especially vulnerable to damaging substances, such as alcohol, radiation, and infectious diseases.

Having reached a little more than 1 in. (2.5 cm) in length by the ninth week of growth, the embryo is called a fetus. By now, the uterus has grown from about the size of a fist to about the size of a grapefruit.

The first trimester is a time of amazing development . The embryo starts out looking like a tiny seed, then a tadpole with a tail, and then more human.

Second Trimester

If this is your first pregnancy, you’ll begin to feel your fetus move at about 18 to 22 weeks after your last menstrual period. Although your fetus has been moving for several weeks, the movements have not been strong enough for you to notice until now. At first, fetal movements can be so gentle that you may not be sure what you are feeling.

If you’ve been pregnant before, you may notice movement earlier, sometime between weeks 16 and 18.

During this time, the fetus is still building up body fat and starting to put on a lot of weight. By the end of the second trimester , your fetus is about 10 in. (25.5 cm) long and weighs about 1.5 lb (680 g).

Third Trimester

The third trimester of pregnancy spans from week 28 to the birth. Although your due date marks the end of your 40th week, a full-term pregnancy can deliver between week 37 and week 42. During this final trimester, your fetus grows larger and the body organs mature. The fetus moves frequently, especially between the 27th and 32nd weeks.

After week 32, a fetus becomes too big to move around easily inside the uterus and may seem to move less. At the end of the third trimester , a fetus usually settles into a head-down position in the uterus. You will likely feel some discomfort as you get close to delivery.

Childbirth

Also known as labour and delivery, is the ending of a pregnancy by one or more babies leaving a woman’suterus. In 2015 there were about 135 million births globally. About 15 million were born before 37 weeks of gestation, while between 3 and 12% were born after 42 weeks. In the developed world most deliveries occur in hospital, while in the developing world most births take place at home with the support of a traditional birth attendant.

http://www.solomonmoshev.com/

 

endodontists

Endodontists

There are many different types of dentists, but today we talk about Endodontists.

What is the difference between a Dentist and an Endodontist?


For more information on what an Endodontic Specialist does – visit us on the web http://www.metzger-endo.co.il/


Endodontists are specialist dentists with additional training, experience and formal qualifications in root canal treatment/therapy, apicetomies, microsurgery, dental emergency and trauma management.

In addition to a dental degree, Endodontists have an additional three years of postgraduate University training in the area of Endodontics. They are registered as a specialist and are not general dentists with an interest in root canal treatment.

Endo

Endodontics encompasses the study and practice of the basic and clinical sciences of the biology of the normal dental pulp and theetiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries of the dental pulp along with associated periradicular conditions. Endodontics has evolved tremendously in the past decade and its applications have immensely improved the quality of dental treatment.

Endodontists perform a variety of procedures including endodontic therapy (commonly known as “root canal therapy”), endodontic retreatment, surgery, treating cracked teeth, and treating dental trauma. Root canal therapy is one of the most common procedures.

If the dental pulp (containing nerves, arterioles, venules, lymphatic tissue, and fibrous tissue) becomes diseased or injured, endodontic treatment is required to save the tooth. Endodontics is recognized as a specialty by many national dental organizations including the British General Dental Council, American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, Indian Dental Association, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons.

What Happens During Endodontic Treatment? (What is a Root Canal?)

A local anesthetic will be given.  A sheet of latex called the “rubber dam” (we’ve got nonlatex ones too) will be placed around the tooth to isolate it, hence keeping it clean and dry during treatment.  The treatment consists of three or four basic steps, but the number of visits will depend on your particular case.  Some treatments take 2 visits but many are just a single visit.  Occasionally 3 appointments are needed.

In any case, it depends on the degree of infection/inflammation and degree of treatment difficulty.  To me, it’s more important to do it the very best we can then to meet a specific time criteria.  Let’s look at the basic steps for nonsurgical endodontic therapy.

There are, of course, no guarantees.  Root canal or endodontic therapy has a very high degree of success, up to 90%.  Teeth which can be treated near ideal have a success rate up to ninety percent!  We will discuss with you the chances of success before any endodontic procedure to help you make an informed decision.  If a root canal or endodontic therapy is unsuccessful or fails you still have options.

Retreatment

Occasionally a tooth that has undergone endodontic, treatment fails to heal or pain continues despite therapy. Although rare, sometimes a tooth initially responds to root canal therapy but becomes painful or diseased months or years later. When either of these situations occur, the tooth often can be maintained with a second endodontic treatment.


For more information on what an Endodontic Specialist does – visit us on the web http://www.metzger-endo.co.il/


Otolaryngologist

Otolaryngology

Otolaryngology (pronounced oh/toe/lair/in/goll/oh/jee)  is practiced by Otolaryngologists who are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. They are commonly referred to as ENT physicians and some of the best can be found in Israel – http://icent.co.il/

WHAT DO OTOLARYNGOLOGISTS TREAT?

Otolaryngologists diagnose and manage diseases of the ears, nose, sinuses, larynx (voice box), mouth, and throat, as well as structures of the neck and face.

The ears
Hearing loss affects one in ten North Americans. The unique domain of otolaryngologists is the treatment of ear disorders. They are trained in both the medical and surgical treatment of hearing loss, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), and some cranial nerve disorders. Otolaryngologists also manage congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and inner ear.

The nose—
About 35 million people develop chronic sinusitis each year, making it one of the most common health complaints in America. Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of otolaryngologists. Problems in the nasal area include allergies, smell disorders, polyps, and nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum.

The throat—
Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area.  Specific to otolaryngologists is expertise in managing diseases of the throat, larynx (voice box), and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.

The head and neck—
This area of the body includes the important functions of sight, smell, hearing, and the appearance of the face. In the head and neck area, otolaryngologists are trained to treat infections, benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They perform both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Specialists

Otolaryngologists are ready to start practicing after completing up to 15 years of college and post-graduate training. To qualify for certification by the American Board of Otolaryngology, an applicant must first complete college (four years), medical school (four years), and at least five years of specialty training. Next, the physician must pass the American Board of Otolaryngology examination. In addition, some otolaryngologists pursue a one- or two- year fellowship for more extensive training in one of eight subspecialty areas.

Seven Ares of Expertise

  • Allergy
  • Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  • Head and Neck
  • Laryngology
  • Otology/Neurotology
  • Pediatric Otolaryngology
  • Rhinology

State-of-the-art update of contemporary audiological practice, including evidence-based fitting and verification of hearing aids, pediatric use of bone anchored implants, listener effort and fatigue from amplification, as well as techniques and challenges associated with aural rehabilitation, tinnitus, and cochlear implants.

דף הבית

Fertility Treatment

Fertility Treatment

What is Fertility Treatment?


Many women need special medical treatment to help them get pregnant. This kind of treatment is called fertility treatment – you can get more information by clicking this link http://www.feldbergclinic.co.il/


If you’ve been trying to get pregnant for 3 or 4 months, keep trying. It may just take more time, even longer than you think it should. You may want to think about fertility treatment if:

You’re younger than 35 and have been trying to get pregnant for at least a year.
You’re 35 or older and have been trying to get pregnant for at least 6 months.

  • There are many kinds of fertility treatment that can help women get pregnant. Talk to your provider to find out if one is right for you.
  • Fertility treatment can cause complications, like getting pregnant with twins or more, having premature birth and having a baby with birth defects.
  • If you need fertility treatment, there are ways to help you get pregnant with just one baby. This can help reduce the risk of pregnancy complications.
  • Things like smoking and weight can affect your fertility. Making certain changes in your life may help you get pregnant without fertility treatment.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy. It is reproductive technology used primarily for infertility treatments, and is also known as fertility treatment.

IVF – the risks

Your clinic will discuss the risks of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with you before you begin treatment. It is very important that you are fully aware of all the potential problems involved.

Drug Reaction

A mild reaction to fertility drugs may involve hot flushes, feeling down or irritable, headaches and restlessness. Symptoms usually disappear after a short time but if they do not, you should see a doctor as soon as possible.

Ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS)

OHSS can be a dangerous over-reaction to fertility drugs used to stimulate egg production. It can cause symptoms such as a swollen stomach, stomach pains, nausea and vomiting.

If you start to experience any of these symptoms you must contact your doctor immediately.

Miscarriage

Although the risk of a miscarriage after IVF is no higher than after a natural conception, nor is the risk lower.

Your clinic will arrange an early pregnancy ultrasound scan if you conceive after IVF. This is to check that the pregnancy is not likely to miscarry. The scan is usually done about two weeks after the positive pregnancy test.

Ectopic pregnancy

When an embryo develops in your fallopian tube rather than your womb, the pregnancy is said to be ectopic.

An ectopic pregnancy can still occur after IVF. Ectopic pregnancy can cause vaginal bleeding, low pregnancy hormone levels and miscarriage.

Hormone tests and scans are used to detect ectopic pregnancies and you should tell your doctor about any vaginal bleeding or stomach pain.

Multiple births

Having a multiple birth (twins, triplets or more) is the single greatest health risk associated with fertility treatment.


Your clinic should discuss this risk with you when you visit – http://www.feldbergclinic.co.il/


 

jacob-hanna-lab

Epigenetic Reprogramming

Reprogramming refers to erasure and remodeling of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, during mammalian development says Jacob Hanna from the Jacob Hanna Lab. 

After fertilization some cells of the newly formed embryo migrate to the germinal ridge and will eventually become the germ cells (sperm and oocytes). Due to the phenomenon of genomic imprinting, maternal and paternal genomes are differentially marked and must be properly reprogrammed every time they pass through the germline. Therefore, during the process of gametogenesis the primordial germ cells must have their original biparental DNA methylation patterns erased and re-established based on the sex of the transmitting parent.

After fertilization the paternal and maternal genomes are once again demethylated and remethylated (except for differentially methylated regions associated with imprinted genes). This reprogramming is likely required for totipotency of the newly formed embryo and erasure of acquired epigenetic changes. In vitro manipulation of pre-implantation embryos has been shown to disrupt methylation patterns at imprinted loci and plays a crucial role in cloned animals.

Reprogramming can also be induced artificially through the introduction of exogenous factors, usually transcription factors. In this context, it often refers to the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells from mature cells such as adult fibroblasts. This allows the production of stem cells for biomedical research, such as research into stem cell therapies, without the use of embryos. It is carried out by the transfection of stem-cell associated genes into mature cells using viral vectors such as retroviruses.

Epigenetic Reprogramming in Plant and Animal Development

Epigenetic modifications of the genome are generally stable in somatic cells of multicellular organisms. In germ cells and early embryos, however, epigenetic reprogramming occurs on a genome-wide scale, which includes demethylation of DNA and remodeling of histones and their modifications.

The mechanisms of genome-wide erasure of DNA methylation, which involve modifications to 5-methylcytosine and DNA repair, are being unraveled. Epigenetic reprogramming has important roles in imprinting, the natural as well as experimental acquisition of totipotency and pluripotency, control of transposons, and epigenetic inheritance across generations.

Small RNAs and the inheritance of histone marks may also contribute to epigenetic inheritance and reprogramming. Reprogramming occurs in flowering plants and in mammals, and the similarities and differences illuminate developmental and reproductive strategies.

Epigenetic Reprogramming Therapy

In addition to genetic changes, epigenetic aberrations also play important roles in radiation- and chemical-induced disorders and carcinogenesis. The present study investigated whether epigenetic therapy with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has dual benefits for radiation-induced oral mucositis and chemical-induced oral carcinogenesis, which should be treated at the same time.

The HDAC inhibitor phenylbutyrate was tested to determine if it influences DNA repair and survival in irradiated normal cells by examining the patterns and dynamics of γH2AX foci and γH2AX-Rad51 co-localization and using clonogenic assays. Oral mucositis or carcinogenesis was induced in hamsters using irradiation or dimethylbenzylamine (DMBA) irritation of the cheek pouch. The ability of phenylbutyrate formed in proper carriers to prevent radiation-induced mucositis and inhibit chemical-induced oral carcinogenesis was assessed. The treated or untreated irradiated or DMBA-irritated oral tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry or subjected to gene expression analysis using real-time RT-PCR.

Epigenetic therapy using the HDAC inhibitor as an adjuvant to radiotherapy for chemical-induced oral cancer may provide a promising strategy combining the prevention of radiation-induced oral mucositis and the inhibition of oral carcinogenesis.